# Restricted Topological Products

In this section we describe a topological tool, which we need in order to define adeles (see Definition 18.3.1).

Definition 18.2.1 (Restricted Topological Products)   Let , for , be a family of topological spaces, and for almost all  let be an open subset of . Consider the space whose elements are sequences , where for every , and for almost all . We give a topology by taking as a basis of open sets the sets , where is open for all , and for almost all . We call  with this topology the restricted topological product of the with respect to the .

Corollary 18.2.2   Let be a finite subset of , and let be the set of with for all , i.e.,

Then is an open subset of , and the topology induced on as a subset of is the same as the product topology.

The restricted topological product depends on the totality of the , but not on the individual :

Lemma 18.2.3   Let be open subsets, and suppose that for almost all . Then the restricted topological product of the with respect to the is canonically isomorphic to the restricted topological product with respect to the .

Lemma 18.2.4   Suppose that the are locally compact and that the are compact. Then the restricted topological product of the is locally compact.

Proof. For any finite subset of , the open subset is locally compact, because by Lemma 18.2.2 it is a product of finitely many locally compact sets with an infinite product of compact sets. (Here we are using Tychonoff's theorem from topology, which asserts that an arbitrary product of compact topological spaces is compact (see Munkres's Topology, a first course, chapter 5).) Since , and the are open in , the result follows.

The following measure will be extremely important in deducing topological properties of the ideles, which will be used in proving finiteness of class groups. See, e.g., the proof of Lemma 18.4.1, which is a key input to the proof of strong approximation (Theorem 18.4.4).

Definition 18.2.5 (Product Measure)   For all , suppose is a measure on with when is defined. We define the product measure on to be that for which a basis of measurable sets is

where each has finite -measure and for almost all , and where

William Stein 2012-09-24